of Udmurt University
Sociology. Political Science. International Relations



Author(-s) Krutkin V.L.
Abstract The article discusses the developments in the Sciences of nature and Sciences of culture by the example of the cultural geography formation. Changes of the world cause the associated processes - geographical knowledge must now take into account humanitarian ideas, and social knowledge must now take into account the spatial and physical (landscape) characteristics of the world. Cultural landscape is not just mountains and rivers, it includes the relationship of human groups. To explore the landscape is to learn to associate the environment and mythology. The landscape has a complex structure, it is not just a spatial repository for things. Rather, it is the canvas on which every generation leaves their marks on the images left by previous generations. Such a palimpsest is always in an open state, it cannot be completed. Layer-by-layer generations of these paintings are artifacts, they are formed by the interweaving of things, words, images. The study of artifacts has been paid attention within different traditions: within philosophy of art and philosophy of technology. The role of methodology of researching artifacts has been claimed by different areas of structuralism and phenomenology. But many researchers today remain aloof from these disputes, they did not engage to materiality turn. The purpose of the article is to show the limitations of a dualistic opposition of subject and object, nature and society, material and immaterial culture in landscape researches. The cultural landscape is what shapes us and is shaped by us. To gain a common understanding of the landscape is to understand the unity of the cognitive and the affective, rational and emotional. Dialectics of coincidence of subject and object allows us to consider the activity of creating artifacts as a process of mediation of the unmediated, materialization of the immaterial. Immaterial is "other material" that has not yet passed across its mediation. Immaterial in activity coincides with unmediated, the artifacts may be subordinate to our goals, in some respects, they continue to live there own life.
Keywords landscape, artifact, Cosgrove, Miller, Leroy-Gourhan, cultural geography, imaginary, symbolic, immaterial
UDC 304.4
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